Vulcan 20mm

vulcan 20mm

A USAF safety report noted 24 premature detonation mishaps causing serious damage in many cases in 12 years with the SAPHEI round, compared to only two such mishaps in the entire recorded history of the M56 round. Прообразом для создания первого образца шестиствольного М61 Vulcan послужил немецкий двенадцати ствольный авиапулемет Fokker-Leimberger, в основе конструкции которого заложена револьверно-батарейная схема Гатлинга.

Быстрый переход:

20mm gatling gun system

Пройдет совсем немного времени, его крылья окрепнут, и он совершит vulcan 20mm первый полет, и будет радовать vulcan 20mm трелями Фррррррр! Он отбирает тягу одного двигателя, второй же, в свою очередь, никуда не денется. А на одном двигателе эти самолёты посадки производили не единожды. Странно так на меня посмотрели. Для сравнения, точность стрельбы из авиапушки М61 составляет 8 мрад.

vulcan 20mm Фото: vulcan 20mm

Авиационные пушки: M61 Vulcan 20mm vs. GAU-8 30mm

The links connection the rounds often bent, broke or stretched, causing the gun to jam. Tran Hanh, and the only survivor from the four MiGs, reported that U. Archived from the original on 28 August Политика конфиденциальности Описание Википедии Отказ от ответственности Свяжитесь с нами Разработчики Соглашение о cookie Мобильная версия. The breech rotor, to which are attached the 6 barrels, revolves inside the breech housing. С начала х годов большинство снарядов снабжается пластмассовыми ведущими поясками. HEI projectiles require a fuze which has a delay arming distance of 20 to 35 feet from the muzzle of the gun. Max 6, rpm can be set to 4, or 6,

20mm APDS vs Body Armor


Так бывает. Можем:

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Introduction

После того, как компьютер идентифицирует наиболее опасную цель, она захватывается из vulcan 20mm обнаружения и передается vulcan 20mm антенну канала сопровождения, который позволяет уточнить ее угловые координаты и скорость движения. Помимо этого, артустановки могут иметь боекомплект выстрелов, позволяющий отражать большое количество атакующих воздушных целей. Тот, кто успел выпустить больше зарядов и начал стрелять первым, имеет больше шансов выжить. Верхняя из них используется при работе РЛС в режиме обнаружения целей в заданном секторе, а нижняя - в режиме сопровождения и корректирования стрельбы. Модификация Mark 15 Phalanx mod.

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vulcan 20mm

Оригинальная пушка Гатлинга не получила распространения из-за большой потребляемой мощности привода вращения блока стволов, однако реактивные истребители конца х годов располагали мощными электрическими и гидравлическими системами, что позволяло применить на них многоствольные пушки. Многоствольные пушки по сравнению с револьверными имеют меньшую скорострельность в расчёте на один ствол, но большую для всей пушечной установки.

Затруднения были вызваны задержками в системе звеньевой подачи патронов, и опасностью, представляемой отдельными звеньями. Для модернизированного варианта пушки М61А1 была разработана беззвеньевая система подачи патронов. Пушка М61А1 стала позднее стандартным вооружением американских истребителей. Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии.

Текущая версия страницы пока не проверялась опытными участниками и может значительно отличаться от версии , проверенной 17 сентября ; проверки требуют 5 правок. У этого термина существуют и другие значения, см. Война во Вьетнаме , Война в Персидском заливе , Война против терроризма. Government Printing Office, Вы можете помочь проекту, расширив текущую статью с помощью перевода. Стреляющий механизм имеет внешнюю схему привода с мощностью 14,7 кВт.

Такой тип привода не требует установки газового регулятора и не боится осечек. Снаряжение патронов может быть: В начале годов фирмой General Electric было принято решение создать специальные подвесные контейнеры подвесные пушечные установки для размещения шестиствольного мм М61 Vulcan.

Конструкция подвесных пушечных установок обеих моделей имеет одинаковые габаритные размеры корпуса длина — 5,05 м, диаметр — 0,56 м и унифицированные мм подвесные узлы, позволяющие устанавливать такой пулемет в ППУ на самые различные модели боевых самолетов. Полный боекомплект состоит из снарядов, вес в снаряженном виде составляет — кг, вес без снаряжения — кг. Пулемет в подвесном контейнере зафиксирован и закреплен неподвижно.

В качестве прицела при стрельбе применяется бортовая система корректировки огня или визуальный стрелковый прицел. Экстракция стрелянных гильз при ведении огня происходит наружу, за борт установки. Если у вас есть статья, заметка или обзор, которыми вы хотите поделиться с аудиторией нашего сайта, присылайте информацию на: За статьи платим деньги! At the end of a burst when the trigger is released, the gun clears itself. In the clearing operation, 5 to 9 unfired rounds are cycled through the gun without firing pulses, and are fed back to the ammo drum.

These rounds are carried for the duration of the flight as spent rounds and cannot be used. The SMS Stores Management System has a rounds remaining counting function which counts each firing pulse from the gun controller and subtracts these from the loaded number of rounds. In the clearing operation, however, there are no pulses or any way of determining the actual number of rounds cleared, therefore the SMS assumes 7. Due to this fact there can be a discrepancy between the rounds remaining on the SCP and the actual number of rounds left to be fired.

This discrepancy can become larger with increasing number of clearings. Hot gasses from the muzzle have left carbon traces, which -if not removed- corode the paint. Close up of the M61 gunport on a Norwegian FA. The copper color is copper-grease, applied to the gunport to protect it from the hot gasses during firing. Burns from the gasses are difficult to clean after a firing period.

The gun takes about 0. Some critics notably defense analyst Pierre Sprey in a paper called First Rounds Count argue that the aim is at it truest when the pilot pulls the trigger, and that it starts wandering off almost immediately. A revolver cannon such as the Mauser BK27 fitted in the Tornado does not have this problem, as it reaches its maximum rate of fire instantly.

The BK27 fires at 1, rpm, or 28 rounds per second. The rate of fire of 6, rpm or rps means that shells are spaced by 0. A MiG, with a length of 56ft 5in Therefore, the Fulcrum will be hit at least times if the aim is true Quite different from the typical movie sound-effects, the M61 sounds more like a heavy concrete drill. AU file format is currently available - most browser however support this format. The projectile is fired when an electrical pulse is applied to the primer.

The resulting flame passes through a gas vent leading to the propellant chamber and ignites the propellant. As the propellant burns, it forms a gas which forces the projectile through the gun barrel.

The only significant difference between the five types of ammunition is in the projectile. Located at the rear of all projectiles is a band of soft metal that seats in the grooves of the gun barrel. The grooves in the barrel are twisted so that the projectile receives a rotating motion as it travels through and leaves the gun barrel.

This rotation is induced to provide stability in flight. The soft band also serves to prevent the propelling gas from escaping past the projectile. Dummy Ammunition The dummy ammunition color code may be either bronze or shades of gray or tan. The case will be steel or plastic. Dummy ammunition is used to check out the gun system. The projectile is hollow and does not contain a filler. The nose of the projectile is made of aluminum alloy, charged with an incendiary composition, and sealed with a closure disk.

The projectile does not require a fuze because it ignites upon impact. The round is used against aircraft and light targets. The projectile explodes with an incendiary effect after penetrating the surface of the target.

HEI projectiles require a fuze which has a delay arming distance of 20 to 35 feet from the muzzle of the gun. Centrifugal force, created by the projectile spin, allows the detonator to align with the firing pin and the booster, thereby arming the round. Upon impact, the projectile presses into its target, crushing the nose of the fuze and forcing the firing pin against the detonator.

The booster, initiated by the detonator, causes the projectile to explode. Army Ordnance Research and Development Service engineers dusted-off the old Gatling principle and adapted it to create the 6, spm M61 series Vulcan 20mm Gatling gun that now arms many of our U. Air Force and U. The M61A1 is hydraulically or ram-air driven, electrically controlled, and uses a linkless ammunition feed system.

A later version of the earlier M, the MA1 is used on many fighters. Due to spin up time of 0. There are also sources which say it fires 47 rounds the first second, for a throw weight of 4. If this is correct, it might refer to time from press of trigger, and the numbers 72 or 75 from the time the first round is fired.

Or perhaps it refers to the M The old new Gatling: Click on Picture to enlarge Way back, in , someone dr. Gatling of USA patented a manually operated, multi-barreled mechanical "machine gun", one of the most successful of such designs.

Being gradually updated, this weapon, in many versions, served with number of armies around the world as an infantry support or a light artillery weapon. Usually chambered for the contemporary general issue rifle cartridge, the XIX century Gatling guns usually have 6 to 10 barrels, mounted around the single axis. Some naval Gatlings, thought, have had calibers up to 1 inch 25mm , and some derivatives, like the Hotchkiss, were up to 53mm in caliber.

When crank at the back of the gun was rotated, the "bundle" of barrels rotated too. Each barrel had its own bolt, which completed full reloading circle per one turn of the barrels bundle. While first successful "true" machine guns appeared by , some Gatling guns seen use until World War 1, especially with the navies. Click on Picture to enlarge As the automatically operated machine guns became more and more mature, Gatling guns were gradually forgotten, until the late s.

At that time, the speed of combat aircrafts became so high, so even most fast-firing conventional machine guns became too slow to achieve desirable number of hits during the very brief encounters.

Project was handled by the General Electric Co. First tests were conducted with the late 19th century Gatlings, fitted with electrical drive instead of manually operated crank; this immediately resulted in the rate of fire of about 4 rounds per minute, which was very impressive it must be noted, that such tests were first conducted in early s, but lead to no practical results at that time - there were no need in the rate of fire of up to 3 RpM.

Further development resulted in some experimental, electrically driven,. This gun could fire at the rate of 4 to 6 thousands rounds per minute. This achievement is possible due to the fact that gun has multiple barrels, and the rate of fire per one barrel is about 1 rounds per minute or even less, allowing them to not to overheat.

Click on Picture to enlarge When USA entered the Indo-China troubles during early s, they soon found that they need to arm their helicopters, to provide additional firepower against enemy infantry. These applications also required a lot of firepower delivered in the short periods of time, so General Electric designers simply scaled the M61 gun down, for 7.

The resulting weapon, known as the M Minigun, could fire up to 4 rounds per minute, and soon found its way to the various helicopter mounts. Usually, AH-1G "Cobra" carried one or two Miniguns in its chin turret, with the 2 or 4 thousands rounds of ammunition.

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vulcan 20mm

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Click on Picture to enlarge. The gun system is mated to a linkless ammunition storage and handling system. The Gatling gun had exceeded that rate of fire in Army Ordnance Research and Development Service engineers dusted-off the old Gatling principle and adapted it to create the 6, spm M61 series Vulcan 20mm Gatling gun.

The Gatling principle permitted a high rate of fire while reducing heat and barrel erosion. In , GE delivered ten initial model A. T45 guns for evaluation. Thirty-three model C T45 guns were delivered in in three calibers: After extensive testing, the T 20mm gun was selected for further development. In the T 20mm gun was standardized by the U. Air Force as the M61 20mm Vulcan aircraft gun. The M61 20mm Vulcan is an externally powered, six-barrel, rotary-fire gun having a rate of fire of up to spm.

The firing rate is selectible at 4, spm or 6, spm. The gun fires standard electrically primed 20mm ammunition. The M61A1 is hydraulically or ram-air driven, electrically controlled, and uses a link less ammunition feed system. The six rotating barrels contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation. The internally mounted 20mm cannon system is common to all versions of the F This system combines the widely used F-4, F, F M61 cannon with rounds A through D models or rounds E model of ammunition.

The cannon can be loaded with target practice, armor piercing, or high explosive incendiary rounds. The primary use of the cannon is in the extremely short range less than feet air-to-air environment, where more sophisticated air-to-air missiles are ineffective.

Alternately, the cannon has limited usefulness in a ground strafing role. The M61A2 is a lightweight version of the M61A1. Most of the weight savings was achieved by machining down the barrel thickness. It has been the principal cannon armament of United States military aircraft for five decades. The higher speeds of jet-engine fighter aircraft meant that achieving an effective number of hits would be extremely difficult without a much higher volume of fire.

While captured German designs principally the Mauser MGC showed the potential of the single-barrel revolver cannon, the practical rate of fire of such a design was still limited by ammunition feed and barrel wear concerns. The Army wanted something better, combining extremely high rate of fire with exceptional reliability.

In response to this requirement, General Electric Armament Division resurrected an old idea: The original Gatling gun had fallen out of favor because of the need for an external power source to rotate the barrel assembly, but the new generation of turbojet-powered fighters offered sufficient electrical power to operate the gun, and electric operation offered superior reliability to a gas operated weapon. With multiple barrels, the rate of fire per barrel could be lower than a single-barrel revolver cannon while still giving a superior total rate of fire.

The Army issued GE the contract in for "Project Vulcan," a six-barrel weapon capable of firing 6, rounds per minute. Although European designers were moving towards heavier 30 mm weapons for better hitting power, the U.

The first GE prototypes of the T were ground-fired in The development of the F revealed that the Vulcan later re-designated M61 suffered problems with its linked ammunition, being prone to mis-feed and presenting a foreign-object damage FOD hazard with discarded links. A link-less feed system was developed for the upgraded M61A1, which subsequently became the standard cannon armament of U. It is likely to remain in service for at least another decade. General Electric sold design and production for the M61 along with their other rotary cannon to General Dynamics.

Description The Vulcan is a Gatling gun: The multiple barrels provide both a very high rate of fire--around rounds per second--and contribute to long weapon life by minimizing barrel erosion and heat generation.

Mean time between jams or failures is in excess of 10, rounds, making it an extremely reliable weapon. The success of the Vulcan Project and its subsequent progeny, the very-high-speed Gatling gun, has led to guns of the same configuration being referred to as Vulcan Cannon , which can sometimes confuse nomenclature on the subject. Most aircraft versions of the M61 are hydraulically driven and electrically primed.

The gun rotor, barrel assembly and ammunition feed system are rotated by a hydraulic drive motor through a system of flexible drive shafts. The round is fired by an electric priming system where an electrical current from a firing lead passes through the firing pin to the primer as each round is rotated into the firing position. The self-powered version, the GAU-4 called M in Army service , is gas-operated, tapping gun gas from three of the six barrels to operate the mechanism.

The self-powered Vulcan weighs about 10 lb 4. Click on Picture to enlarge M61 ammo belt The initial M61 used linked, belted ammunition, but the ejection of spent links created considerable and ultimately insuperable problems.

The original weapon was soon replaced by the M61A1, with a linkless feed system. Depending on the application, the feed system can be either single-ended ejecting spent cases and unfired rounds or double-ended returning casings back to the magazine. A disadvantage of the M61 is that the bulk of the weapon, its feed system, and ammunition drum makes it difficult to fit it into a densely packed airframe. The feed system must be custom-designed for each application, adding lb kg to the complete weapon.

Most aircraft installations are double-ended, because the ejection of empty cartridges can cause a foreign-object damage FOD hazard for jet engines and because the retention of spent cases assists in maintaining the center of gravity of the aircraft. The first aircraft to carry the M61A1 was the D model of the F, starting in A lighter version of the Vulcan developed for use on the F Raptor, the M61A2, is mechanically the same as the M61A1, but with thinner barrels to reduce overall mass to lb The rotor and housing have also been modified to remove any piece of metal not absolutely needed for operation and replaces some metal components with lighter weight materials.

Until the late s the M61 primarily used the M50 series of ammunition in various types, typically firing a gram 3. The PGU has not been without problems, however.

A USAF safety report noted 24 premature detonation mishaps causing serious damage in many cases in 12 years, compared to only two such mishaps in the entire recorded history of the M56 round. Disadvantages Despite its reliability and tremendous rate of fire, the Vulcan has been increasingly criticized in recent years for its limited performance. The ballistic characteristics of the 20 mm round are relatively poor, with the projectile losing energy quickly, and its destructive power and accuracy are lacking compared to the heavier mm rounds favored by European and Russian air forces.

Efforts to develop a larger-caliber replacement for the M61 have thus far had limited success. The USAF spent a great deal of money in s on the 25 mm GAU-7 cannon for the F Eagle, using caseless ammunition, but it proved to be a failure and was abandoned in favor of the Vulcan. The five-barrel GAU Equalizer 25 mm gun used in the AV-8B Harrier II is a Vulcan derivative, but despite greater hitting power since it fires a heavier round at virtually the same muzzle velocity it had yet to find wide application except for the F Lightning-II which was reduced to four barrel.

Another criticism is that despite its high rate of fire, the Gatling-type weapon is hampered by the time it takes for the weapon to spin up to its maximum rotation speed about 0. To overcome this shortfall, the M61A2, with its lower inertia can be powered by a hydraulic motor with 5, P. Applications The Vulcan was first used in the F Starfighter.

It was designed into Air Force versions of the A-7D where it replaced the Naval standard dual cannon, and subsequently adopted by the Navy on future fighters. Most significantly, it was designed into an air superiority version of the F-4E Phantom II which lacked a cannon in all previous versions since it was believed that beyond-visual-range AIM-7 Sparrow missiles made guns obsolete. Combat experience in Vietnam showed that a gun could be more effective than guided missiles in many combat situations, and that a gun pod was less satisfactory than an internal gun.

Both pods ejected empty casings and unfired rounds rather than retaining them. Both pods contained 1, rounds of ammunition, with a loaded weight of 1, lb kg and 1, lb kg respectively.

Unfortunately, during service in the Vietnam War the pods proved to be relatively inaccurate: A variant with much shorter barrels, designated the M was also developed for use on the M35 Armament Subsystem for use on the AH-1G Cobra helicopter. This variant fed from ammunition boxes fitted to the landing skid and was developed to provide the AH-1 helicopter with a longer ranging suppressive fire system before the adoption of the M97 Universal Turret mounting the M cannon.

It fires standard M50 ammunition at 6, rounds per minute rate selectable in certain installations. The lesson of WWII was that the German, Italian and Japanese fighters could reach out and touch the Americans with their cannon main armament, while the latter had to get up close and personal with the.

The 20mm Hispano carried by the P was a relatively low velocity weapon. Results were high rate of fire and a high rate of barrel wear out. With propellants of the time and period metallurgy it was a good idea but one that was not ready until new technology came along. Gatling in the 19th century. The Vulcan was first fired in pre-production form in , and made its first flight in the Lockheed F Initial problems with the gas bleed resulted in a temporary suspension of firing tests, until a better venting system for the F gun compartment was designed.

Today, after a period of neglect when guns were thought to be rendered obsolete by missiles , the M61 in one form or another, is an integral part of the armament of modern fighters such as the F, F and of course the F Construction The multiple-barrels cannon offers both advantages in firing rate and in barrel life. As the 6 barrels revolve, they proceed through the different stages of the gun firing cycle.

Each barrel is fired as it passes through the top position, after which the spent case is extracted and ejected, and a new round is fed and chambered - all at different positions on the circle described by the revolving barrel.

This means that the firing rate is multiplied by the number of barrels, as six barrels are being loaded in parallel. Major drawback is that ammunition is consumed at a vast rate, requiring large ammo magazines. The gun is fed through long linked belts of ammo, and although the gun appeared from early on in the development to be extremely reliable, the unprecedented rate of fire caused severe problems with these belts.

The links connection the rounds often bent, broke or stretched, causing the gun to jam. Furthermore, provisions had to be made to dispose of the links. As a result, development of a new linkless feed system quickly started. Inside the drum, the rounds tips to the middle are placed in a giant Archimedean screw which moves them into the conveyor belt feeding the gun.

In the F and some other installations M61A1 installations are tailor-made to each aircraft type , the empty case is transported back to the drum via a second conveyor belt.

Both conveyor belts are housed in strong flexible ducts, and are powered by the gun, as well as the screw inside the drum which is driven via a high-power flexible coupling. The stationary breech housing has a deep elliptical slot in its inner wall in which run 6 cam followers, on the breech of each barrel.

The followers are driven linearly in and out of the associated breech, successively chambering, firing and extracting the rounds. The breech rotor, to which are attached the 6 barrels, revolves inside the breech housing. At the muzzle end, the 6 barrels are fitted in a clamp.

M61 Vulcan

At that time, the speed of vulcan 20mm aircrafts became so high, so even most fast-firing conventional machine guns became too slow to achieve desirable number of hits during the very brief encounters. В это трудно vulcan 20mm, но ученые и многие vulcan 20mm склоняются к мнению, что современный человек спит совсем не так, как его древние предки. In the F and some other installations M61A1 installations are tailor-made to each aircraft typethe empty case is transported back to the drum via a second conveyor belt. A variant with much shorter barrels, designated the M was also developed for use on the M35 Armament Subsystem for use on the AH-1G Cobra helicopter. As the 6 barrels revolve, they proceed through the different stages of the gun firing cycle.



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